Titanium Dioxide

Identifiers

INS No. 171
E171
CAS No. 13463-67-7

Physical Description

Titanium Dioxide occurs as a white, amorphous powder. It is produced by either the sulfate or the chloride process, and processing conditions determine the form, either anatase or rutile, of the final product.

Common Uses

Titanium dioxide can be used to color cosmetics, pharmaceutical products, pet foods and foods including confectionery goods, bakery products, dairy products, cheeses, icings and decorations, frozen desserts, non-dairy creamers, and dried soup.

Specifications

JECFA
US FDA

Codex GSFA Provisions

Titanium dioxide (INS No 171) is a food additive that is included in Table 3 of the General Standard of Food Additives (GSFA), and as such may be used in specified foods under the conditions of good manufacturing practices (GMP) as outlined in the Preamble of the Codex GSFA.

Regulatory Approvals

JECFA: An ADI “not limited” was established at the 13th JECFA (13th Report, 1969).

USA: Titanium dioxide is exempt from certification and may be safely used for coloring foods generally, as long as the quantity of titanium dioxide does not exceed 1% by weight of the food (21 CFR 73.575), for coloring ingested and externally applied drugs generally, in amounts consistent with GMP (21 CFR 73.1575), and in cosmetics, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye in amounts consistent with GMP (21 CFR 73.2575).

EC: Titanium dioxide is not authorized in food categories. The substance is used in medicinal products in accordance with Directive 2009/35/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council (OJ L 109, 30.4.2009, p. 10).’; Regulation EU No 2022/63  

Safety Reviews

JECFA (1970) Toxicological evaluation of some food colors, emulsifiers, stabilizers, anti-caking agents and certain other substances. FAO Nutr. Mtgs. Rept. Ser. No. 46A; WHO Food Add. 70.36. Available online

EFSA FAF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Flavourings), 2021. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of titanium dioxide (E171) as a food additive. EFSA Journal 2021;19(5):6585, 130 pp. Available online