Green S

 

Identifiers

INS No. 142
E 142
EINECS No. 221-409-2
CAS No. 3087-16-9
CI Food Green 4
CI No. 44090
Brilliant Green BS
Food Green S

Physical Description

Green S consists essentially of sodium N-[4-[[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl](2- hydroxy-3,6-disulfo-1-naphthalenyl)-methylene]-2,5-cyclohexadien-1- ylidene]-N-methylmethanaminium and subsidiary colouring matters together with sodium chloride and/or sodium sulfate as the principal uncolored compounds. The colorant, which provides a reddish green shade in applications, is soluble in water and slightly soluble in ethanol.

Common Uses

Typical applications include beverages, confectionery, bakery, dairy fats and oil, meat, seafood, snacks, dry mixes and seasonings, fruit preparation, convenient food, and flavors.

Specifications

EU defined in Commission Regulation (EU) No 231/2012

JECFA

Regulatory Approval

JECFA: No ADI allocated (1974)

EU: ADI of 0-5 mg/kg body weight (EFSA, 2010). Authorized uses and use levels has been defined in Directive 94/36/EC on colors for use in foodstuffs. Currently, Green S is an authorized synthetic food coloring substance in the EU with maximal authorized use levels of 10-500 mg/kg food for various foodstuffs. Green S is also allowed in the EU in beverages at levels up to 200 mg/l.

Safety Reviews

EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS); Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Green S (E 142) as a food additive. EFSA Journal 2010;8(11):1851. [32 pp.]. Available online

JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives), 1974. Toxicological evaluation of some food colors, thickening agents, and certain other substances. 18th Report. WHO Techn. Report Series, 1974, No. 557. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, 1974, No. 54. Available online