Curcumins

Identifiers

INS No 100(i); E 100; Curcumin
INS 100(ii); Turmeric
Turmeric Oleoresin

Physical Description

Turmeric and curcumin can be used as a color in three major forms. The color additive turmeric is the ground rhizome powder of Curcuma longa L, while turmeric oleoresin is the combination of flavor and color principles obtained from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) by extraction using any one or a combination of  solvents and typically contains 5-55% of curcuminoids. Curcumin, the main coloring component of turmeric, is an extract containing at least 90% curcuminoids. Curcumin is obtained by solvent extraction of turmeric powder with purification of the resultant extract by crystallization. The commercial product consists essentially of curcumins: the coloring principle (1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3- methoxyphenyl) hepta-1,6-diene-3,5-dione) and its desmethoxy and bisdesmethoxy derivatives in varying proportions. Minor amounts of oils and resins that occur naturally in turmeric may also be present.

Common Uses

Turmeric, turmeric oleoresin, and curcumin are yellow color additives that can be used in condiments such as pickles, mustard, seasonings, relish, hot peppers, snacks, baked goods, sauces, salad dressing, oils, margarine, frozen desserts, cheeses, pies, cakes, candies, beverages, frosting, cereal, snacks, fruit preparation, convenient food, meat, seafood and soups.

Specifications

JECFA

US FDA:

Commission Regulation (EU) No 231/2012

Codex GSFA Provisions

Curcumin (INS No. 100(i)) is added to foods and beverages at concentrations up to a maximum permitted level (MPL) as adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. There are currently 6 food categories for which MPLs for curcumin have been adopted in the General Standard of Food Additives, with a large number of other applications of curcumin as a color additive in foods and beverages proposed and pending adoption, following completion of the review and comment process.

Regulatory Approvals

JECFA: ADI of 0-3 mg/kg bw established for curcumin (2003).No ADI allocated for turmeric, as it is often regarded often as a food rather than as a food additive (1986). No ADI allocated for turmeric oleoresin (1989).

USA: Turmeric (21 CFR 73.600) and Turmeric oleoresin (21 CFR 73.615) are exempt from certification and may be safely used for the coloring of foods generally, in amounts consistent with GMP

EC: ADI for curcumin of 3 mg/kg bw/day (EFSA, 2010). EFSA has also established MPLs for use of Curcumin in beverages and foodstuffs according to the European Parliament and Council Directive 94/36/EC.

Safety Reviews

JECFA (2004). Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. WHO Technical Report Series No. 922. Sixty-first meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Available online

JECFA (1990). Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. WHO Technical Report Series No. 789. Thirty-fifth meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Available online

JECFA (1986). Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. WHO Technical Report Series No. 751. Thirtieth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Available online

EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS); Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of curcumin (E 100) as a food additive. EFSA Journal 2010; 8(9):1679. [46 pp.]. Available online