-INS No. 140
-E 140(i)
-EINECS No. 215-800-7
-CAS No. 1406-65-1
-CI Natural Green 3
-CI No. 75810 

-E 140(ii)
-EINECS No. 287-483-3
-CAS No 85536-03-4
-CI Natural Green 5
-CI No. 75815
-Sodium Chlorophyllin
-Potassium Chlorophyllin

Physical Description

Chlorophyll is an oil soluble pigment obtained from lucerne, nettle, spinach and grass, providing an olive-green color. The water-soluble form, sodium chlorophyllin is obtained by the saponification of oil soluble forms. Chlorophyllin provides an olive-green shade.

Common Uses

Typical applications for chlorophylls and chlorophyllins include confectionery, desserts, beverages, dairy products, ice cream, fruit preparation, bakery products, soups, sauces, snack food, seasonings, and convenience food.


JECFA (Chlorophylls)
EU defined in Commission Regulation (EU) No 23/2012

Codex GSFA Provisions

Chlorophylls (INS No. 140) are a food additive that is included in Table 3 of the General Standard of Food Additives (GSFA), and as such may be used in specified foods under the conditions of good manufacturing practices (GMP) as outlined in the Preamble of the Codex GSFA. Chlorophylls are acceptable in foods conforming to Commodity standards for Bouillons and Consommés (CS 117-1981), Cheddar (CS 263-1966), Danbo (CS 264-1966) and Certain Canned Fruits (CS 319-2015).

Regulatory Approvals

JECFA: An ADI ‘not limited’ was established for chlorophylls at the 13th JECFA (13th Report, 1969).

EU: No ADI was derived, but at reported use levels, chlorophylls are not of safety concern as regards their current use as food additives (EFSA, 2015). The Panel concluded that it was not possible to assess the safety of chlorophyllins as food additives (EFSA, 2015). Chlorophylls and Chlorophyllins are authorized as food additives in the European Union (EU) in specific food and beverage categories at quantum satis, in accordance with Annex II to Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008.

Safety Reviews

EFSA ANS Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources Added to Food), 2015. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of chlorophylls (E 140(i)) as food additives. EFSA Journal 2015;13(5):4089, 56 pp. Available online.

EFSA ANS Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food), 2015. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of chlorophyllins (E 140(ii)) as food additives. EFSA Journal 2015;13(5):4085, 42 pp. Available online.

JECFA (1970) Toxicological evaluation of some food colors, emulsifiers, stabilizers, anticaking agents and certain other substances. 30th Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series No. 46A. Available online.