INS No. 160e
E 160e; beta-apo-8′-carotenal (C30)
CI Food Orange 6

Physical Description

β-apo-8′-carotenal occurs as a fine, crystalline powder with a dark, metallic sheen.

Common Uses

β-apo-8′-carotenal can be used to color confectionery, bakery products, snack food, juices, fruit drinks, soups, jams, jellies, gelatins, processed cheese, margarine, salad dressings, fats and oils.




Commission Regulation (EU) No 23/2012

Codex GSFA Provisions

β-apo-8′-carotenal (INS No 160e) is added to foods and beverages at concentrations up to a maximum permitted level (MPL) as established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and adopted in the General Standard of Food Additives.

Regulatory Approvals

JECFA: ADI of 0-0.3 mg/kg bw (87th meeting, 2019)

USA: beta-apo-8′-carotenal is exempt from certification and may be safely used for coloring foods generally, such that the quantity does not exceed 15 mg per pound of solid or semisolid food or per pint of liquid food (21 CFR 73.90).

EU: ADI of 0.05 mg/kg bw/day(EFSA, 2012). EFSA has also established MPLs for use of E 160e in specific foods and beverages in Europe.


Safety Reviews

Safety Evaluation of certain food additives (Eighty-seventh report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives) WHO Food Additives Series, No. 78, 2020. Available online

EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS); Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of β-apo-8’-carotenal (E 160e) as a food additive. EFSA Journal 2012;10(3):2499. [46 pp.] Available online