Tartrazine

Identifiers

INS No. 102
FD&C Yellow No. 5
E 102
CAS No. 1934-21-0
CI 19140

Physical Description

Tartrazine is a monoazo dyes that occurs as a yellow-orange powder or granules. It is principally the trisodium salt of 4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-1-(4-sulfophenyl) -4- [4-sulfophenyl-azo] -1H-pyrazole -3-carboxylic acid and may be converted to the corresponding aluminum lake.

Common Uses

Tartrazine provides a lemon-yellow color and can be used in drugs, cosmetics, and foods, including dietary supplements, beverages, frozen treats, powder mixes, gelatin products, candies, icings, jellies, spices, dressings, sauces, baked goods and dairy products.

Specifications

JECFA 

US FDA

Commission Regulation (EU) No 231/2012

Codex GSFA Provisions

Tartrazine (INS No. 102) is added to foods and beverages at concentrations up to a maximum permitted level (MPL) as established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. There are currently 8 food categories for which MPLs for tartrazine have been adopted in the General Standard for Food Additives. Approximately 70 other applications of tartrazine as a color additive in foods and beverages have been proposed and are pending adoption, following completion of the review and comments process.

Regulatory Approvals

JECFA: ADI of 0-10 mg/kg body weight (82nd meeting, 2016)
USA: FD&C Yellow No. 5, along with its aluminum lake (21 CFR 82.705), are subject to certification and may be safely used for coloring foods (including dietary supplements) generally (21 CFR 74.705), drugs generally (21 CFR 74.1705), and cosmetics generally (21 CFR 74.2705) in amounts consistent with GMP 

EU: ADI of 0-7.5 mg/kg body weight; EFSA has also established MPLs for use of Tartrazine in foods and beverages in Europe

Safety Reviews

JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives) (2016) Evaluation of certain food additives (eighty-second report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives). WHO Technical Report series, 100. Available online

EFSA (2009) Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Tartrazine (E 102) on request from the European Commission. EFSA Journal, 7(11), 1331, 52 pp. Available online