Riboflavins

Identifiers

INS No. 101(i); Riboflavin, synthetic
INS No. 101(ii); Riboflavin 5′-phosphate sodium
INS No. 101(iii); Riboflavin from Bacillus subtilis
INS No. 101(iv); Riboflavin from Ashbya gossypii
E 101(i); Riboflavin
E 101(ii); Riboflavin-5′-phosphate

Physical Description

Riboflavin occurs as a yellow to orange-yellow, crystalline powder. Riboflavin from Bacillus Subtilis is prepared by submerged fermentation by Bacillus subtillis genetically modified for riboflavin overproduction. Riboflavin-5’-Phosphate occurs as a fine, orange-yellow, crystalline powder.

Common Uses

Riboflavin can be used to color convenient foods, soft drinks, cheese and cheese products, dairy products, bakery goods, fish products, canned fruits and vegetables, confectionery, desert powder, sherbets, jams and jellies, soups, mayonnaise and salad dressing, fats and oils, mustard and flavorings.

Specifications

JECFA

US FDA
Commission Regulation (EU) No 231/2012

Codex GSFA Provisions

Riboflavins are added to foods and beverages at concentrations in more than 70 food categories up to a maximum permitted level (MPL) as adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and published in the General Standard of Food Additives (GSFA). The provisions are defined at the additive group level, and thus apply to the total content of the additives participating in this group: Riboflavin, synthetic (INS No. 101(i)); Riboflavin 5’-phosphate sodium (INS No. 101(ii)); and Riboflavin from Bacillus subtilis (INS No. 101(iii)).

Regulatory Approvals

JECFA: A group ADI of “not specified” for riboflavin, riboflavin-5′-phosphate, riboflavin from B. subtilis, and riboflavin from A. gossypii, expressed as riboflavin. (92nd Report, 2021).

USA: Riboflavin is exempt from certification and may be safely used for the coloring of foods generally, in amounts consistent with GMP (21 CFR 73.450).

EU: No ADI allocated (2013). Currently, riboflavins are authorized food additives in the EU at quantum satis in all foodstuffs except for concentrations up to 100 mg/L in aromatized wines and aromatized wine-based drinks (Americano, bitter soda).

Safety Reviews

JECFA (1998: Geneva, Switzerland). Evaluation of certain food additives: fifty-first report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. (WHO technical report series; 891). Available online

JECFA (1981: Geneva, Switzerland). Evaluation of certain food additives: twenty-fifth Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. (WHO Technical Report Series No. 669). Available online

EFSA ANS Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources Added to Food), 2013. Scientific opinion on the re-evaluation of riboflavin (E 101(i)) and riboflavin-5-phosphate sodium (E 101(ii)) as food additives. EFSA Journal 2013;11(10):3357, 49 pp. Available online