Quinoline Yellow

Identifiers

INS No. 104
D&C Yellow No. 10
E 104
CI Food Yellow 13
CI No. 47005

Physical Description

Quinoline yellow occurs a yellow powder or granules and is manufactured by sulfonating 2-(2-quinolyl)-1,3-indandione. Quinoline yellow can be converted to a corresponding aluminum lake.

Common Uses

Quinoline yellow can be used to color cosmetics, drugs, and food, including dietary supplements, sauces, soups and broths, bakery, dairy fats and oil, seafood, seasonings, breath fresheners, desserts, and convenient foods, and beverages.

Specifications

JECFA
Commission Regulation (EU) No 231/2012

Codex GSFA Provisions

Quinoline yellow (INS No. 104) is added to foods and beverages at concentrations up to a maximum permitted level (MPL) as established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. There are currently 8 food categories for which MPLs for quinoline yellow have been adopted in the General Standard of Food Additives. Many other applications of quinoline yellow as a color additive in foods and beverages have been proposed and are pending adoption, following completion of the review and comments process.

Regulatory Approvals

JECFA: ADI of 0-3 mg/kg body weight (73rd Report, 2016)

USA: D&C Yellow No. 10 is a color additive subject to certification and permanently listed for use in drugs generally (21 CFR 74.1710) and cosmetics (21 CFR 74.2710) at GMP.

EU: ADI of 0.5 mg/kg body weight (EFSA, 2009); EFSA has also established MPLs for use of Quinoline Yellow in specific foods and beverages in Europe

Safety Reviews

Safety evaluation of certain food additives: prepared by the Eighty-second meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017 (WHO Food Additives Series, No. 73) Available online

EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS)Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to food; Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Quinoline Yellow. EFSA Journal 2009; 7(11):1329. [40 pp.]. Available online