Chlorophylls & Chlorophyllins, copper complexes

 

Identifiers

Chlorophylls, copper complexes:
-INS No. 141(i)
-E 141(i)
–CI Natural Green 3
-CI No 75810
-Copper Chlorophyll

Chlorophyllin copper complexes, potassium and sodium salts:
-INS No. 141(ii)
-E141(ii)
-CI Natural Green 5
-CI No 75815
-Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin
-Potassium Copper Chlorophyllin
-Copper complexes of chlorophyllins

Physical Description

Chlorophyll is an oil soluble pigment obtained from lucerne, nettle, spinach and grass, providing an olive-green color. The addition of copper results in copper chlorophyll. The water-soluble form, sodium copper chlorophyllin, is obtained by the saponification of oil soluble forms. The copper chlorophyllin pigment gives bright green and is very stable against light and heat.

Common Uses

Typical applications include confectionery, desserts, beverages, dairy products, ice cream, fruit preparation, bakery products, soups, sauces, snack food, seasonings, and convenience food.

Specifications

US FDA (Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin)

JECFA

EU defined in Commission Regulation (EU) No 23/2012

Codex GSFA Provisions

Chlorophophylls and Chlorophyllins, copper complexes (INS Nos. 141(i-ii)) are added to foods and beverages in more than 50 food categories at concentrations up to a maximum permitted level (MPL) as established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and published in the General Standard of Food Additives (GSFA).

Regulatory Approvals

JECFA: ADI of 0-15 mg/kg bw for chlorophylls, copper complexes (13th Report, 1969) and chlorophyllins, copper complexes sodium and potassium salts (22nd Report, 1978)

USA: Sodium copper chlorophyllin is exempt from certification and may be safely used to color citrus-based dry beverage mixes in an amount not exceeding 0.2% by in the dry mix (21 CFR 73.125) Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin may be safely used for coloring dentrifices that are drugs at a level not to exceed 0.1% (21 CFR 73.1125) and that are cosmetics  not in excess of 0.1% and only in combination with specifcally listed substances (21 CFR 73.2125)

EU: ADI withdrawn (2015); Copper complexes of chlorophylls and chlorophyllins are authorized for use at Quantum satis in specific foods and beverages in Europe.

Safety Reviews

Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) (1969) JECFA 13th Report. Specifications for the Identity and Purity of Food Additives and Their Toxicological Evaluation. WHO Technical Report Series, No. 445. Available online

Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) (1978) JECFA 22nd Report. Evaluation of Certain Food Additives and Contaminants. WHO Technical Report Series, No. 631. Available online

EFSA ANS Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources Added to Food), 2015. Scientific Opinion on re-evaluation of copper complexes of chlorophylls (E 141(i)) and chlorophyllins (E 141(ii)) as food additives. EFSA Journal 2015;13(6):4151, 60 pp. Available online