Chlorophylls, copper complexes:
-INS No. 141(i)
–CI Natural Green 3
-CI No 75810
Chlorophyllins, copper complexes sodium and potassium salts:
-INS No. 141(ii)
-Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin
-Copper complexes of chlorophyllins
-Potassium Copper Chlorophyllin
-CI Natural Green 5
-CI No 75815
Chlorophyll is an oil soluble pigment obtained from Lucerne, Nettle, Spinach and Grass, providing an olive-green color. The addition of Copper results in Copper Chlorophyllin. The water-soluble form, Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin, is obtained by the saponification of oil soluble forms. The Copper Chlorophyllin pigment gives bright green and is very stable against light and heat.
Typical applications include confectionery, desserts, beverages, dairy products, ice cream, fruit preparation, bakery products, soups, sauces, snack food, seasonings, and convenience food.
US FDA (Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin)
EU defined in Commission Regulation (EU) No 23/2012
Chlorophophylls and Chlorophyllins, copper complexes are added to foods and beverages at concentrations up to a maximum permitted level (MPL) as established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and published in the General Standard of Food Additives (GSFA).
Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) (1969) JECFA 13th Report. Specifications for the Identity and Purity of Food Additives and Their Toxicological Evaluation. WHO Technical Report Series, No. 445. Available online
Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) (1978) JECFA 22nd Report. Evaluation of Certain Food Additives and Contaminants. WHO Technical Report Series, No. 631. Available online
EFSA ANS Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources Added to Food), 2015. Scientific Opinion on re-evaluation of copper complexes of chlorophylls (E 141(i)) and chlorophyllins (E 141(ii)) as food additives. EFSA Journal 2015;13(6):4151, 60 pp. Available online