Beet Red

 

Identifiers

Dehydrated beets
Beet powder
Beetroot Red
Betanin

INS No. 162
E162
EINECS No. 231-628-5
CAS No. 7659-95-2

Physical Description

Beet Red is the color obtained from the roots of red beets (Beta vulgaris L var rubra), as press juice or by aqueous extraction of shredded beet roots. composed of different pigments all belonging to the class betalaine; main colouring principle consists of betacyanins (red) of which betanine accounts for 75-95%; minor amounts of betaxanthine (yellow) and degradation products of betalaines (light brown) may be present. Besides the color pigments the juice or extract consists of sugars, salts and/or proteins naturally occurring in red beets. The solution may be concentrated and some products may be refined in order to remove most of the sugars, salts and proteins. Beetroot red is available as a liquid, paste, or solid, depending upon the degree of processing and gives a bright red to bluish red color.

Common Uses

Beet red is used to color hard candies, yogurt, ice creams and frozen desserts, salad dressings, ready-made frostings, cake mixes, meat and meat substitutes, powdered drink mixes, gravy mixes, biscuit filling, marshmallow candies, fruit preparations, convenience foods, soft drinks, and gelatin desserts.

Specifications

US FDA
JECFA
EU Commission Regulation (EU) No 231/2012

Codex GSFA Provisions

Beet red (INS No. 162) is a food additive that is included in Table 3 of the General Standard for Food Additives (GSFA), and as such may be used in specified foods under the conditions of good manufacturing practices (GMP) as outlined in the Preamble of the Codex GSFA. Beet red is also acceptable in foods conforming to the Codex Standards for Bouillons and Consommés (CS 117-1981), Instant Noodles (CS 249-2006) and Certain Canned Foods (CS 319-2005).

Regulatory Approvals

USA: Beet powder (Dehydrated beets) is a color additive exempt from certification and permanently listed for food use in amounts consistent with GMP (21 CFR 73.40). Vegetable juice may be safely used for the coloring of foods generally, in amounts consistent with GMP (21 CFR 73.260)

JECFA: An ADI ‘not specified’ was established at the 31st JECFA (1987).

EC: EFSA has concluded that beetroot red is not of safety concern as regards its current use as a food additive (EFSA, 2015). EFSA has also authorized use in specific foods and beverages at quantum satis

Safety Reviews

EFSA ANS Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food), 2015. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of beetroot red (E 162) as a food additive. EFSA Journal 2015;13(12):4318, 55pp. Available online.

JECFA (1987). Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. Thirty -first report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Technical Report Series No. 759. Available online.